Development of Colonial Architecture In India in British Rule


The British arrival in 1615 overthrew the Mughal empire. Britain reigned India for over three hundred years and their legacy still remains through building and infrastructure that populate their former colonies. The major cities colonized during this period were Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi, Agra, Bankipore(Patna),Karachi, Nagpur, Bhopal and Hyderabad. St Andrews Kirk, Madras . It is renowned for its colonial beauty. The building is circular in form and is sided by two rectangular sections one is the entrance porch. . The entrance is lined with twelve colonnades and two British lions and motto of East India Company engraved on them. 


The interior holds sixteen columns and the dome is painted blue with decorated with gold stars
The Victoria Memorial ,Calcutta It is the most effective symbolism of British Empire, built as a monument in tribute to Queen Victoria’s reign. The plan of the building consists of one large central part covered with a larger dome. Colonnades separate the two chambers. Each corner holds a smaller dome and is floored with marble plinth. The memorial stands on 26 hectares of garden surrounded by reflective pools. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus,Mumbai The station building is designed in the High Victorian Gothic style of architecture. The building exhibits a fusion of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Indian architecture. 


The skyline, turrets, pointed arches, and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture The centrally domed office structure has a 330 feet long platform connected to a 1,200 feet long train shed, and its outline provides the skeleton plan for building. VT's dome of dovetailed ribs, built without centring, was considered as a novel achievement of the era. The interior of the building was conceived as a series of large rooms with high ceilings The columns of the entrance gates are crowned by figures of a lion (representing Great Britain) and a tiger (representing India). The main structure is built from a blend of India sandstone and limestone, while high-quality Italian marble was used for the key decorative elements. The main interiors are also decorated with Italian marble and polished Indian blue stone. The stone arches are covered with carved foliage and grotesques. Internally, the ceiling of the booking hall was originally painted blue, gold and strong red on a ground of rich blue with gold stars. Its walls were lined with glazed tiles


Gateway of India •The architect George Wittet combined the elements of the Roman triumphal arch and the 16th-century architecture of Gujarat Its design is a combination of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles; •The arch is of Muslim style while the decorations are of Hindu style. • T he gateway is built from yellow basalt and reinforced concrete. •The stone was locally obtained, and the perforated screens were brought from Gwalior. •The gateway faces out to Mumbai Harbour from the tip of Apollo Bunder.
Portuguese: 1498 to 1961.The interior of Goan -Portuguese houses consisted of elaborate patterns created with tiles imported from Europe and a false ceiling installed of wood. • The walls are painted with bright colours contrasting to the earthy coloured furniture. •


 The walls were made out of mud or laterite stone and coloured with vegetable and natural dyes. • Gateposts and compound walls were craved with great detail.
The Portuguese - Catholic houses faced the street with unique large ornamental windows opening onto verandas. • Bold colours were painted on houses constructing distinct identity, allowing the sailors to recognize their houses from sea. • The covered porches and verandas were designed for socializing contrary to the Hindu styled housing. • Front doors were lined with columns, and railings were popular in embellishment


Portuguese dominance in Goa still remains evident. • Colonizers' missionary spirit built many magnificent cathedrals, churches, basilicas and seminaries. The Basilica of Bom Jesus (Good Jesus),Old Goa • The former capital during the Portuguese rule. The three storied Renaissance styled church was built of plaster and laterite in1605, • It holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier. The interior is built in a Mosaic- Corinthian style and adorned with wood and gold leaf. • The walls embrace old painting of saints as the floor is laid with pure white marble. The ornamented entrance to the church. Interior view towards altar. Se Cathedral, Velha Goa The architecture style of the Se Cathedral is Portuguese- Manueline. The exterior is Tuscan, whereas the interior is Corinthian. •The Se Cathedral's tower houses a large bell known as the "Golden Bell" on account of its rich tone. •The main altar is dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria, and there are several old paintings on either side of it. •On the right there is a Chapel of the Cross of Miracles, where a vision of Christ is said to have appeared in 1919. • 

There are six main panels, on which scenes from the life of Saint Catherine are carved. There is a huge gilded reredos above the main altar. French: 1673 to 1954. Many streets retain French names, and French-style villas are a common sight. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically colonial style with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian quarter consists of houses lined with verandas and with large doors and grills.

18th Century Tamil Building: Ananda Ranga Pillai Mansion Ground Floor Interior - Tamil style First Floor Interior - French Style Long Section Plan Among the buildings owned by Tamil noble men and traders, the house of Ananda Ranga Pillai (109 on the street that bears his name), built in 1735, is one of the oldest. Spared by the British in 1761, this is one of the most beautiful examples of a traditional Tamil house with European influence in Pondicherry. On the ground floor, in typically Indian fashion, the courtyard is surrounded by exquisitely carved wooden pillars; On the first floor, the terrace is supported by elegant masonry columns of European design. This edifice is plainly the expression of the two cultures to which the great dubash of the French governor Dupleix belonged. 


The ceilings are marked by heavy wooden beams and wooden joists supporting terrace roofing made of brick-on-edge masonry in lime mortar, called argamasse in French and Madras roofing in English; the main building material for all masonry works was burnt bricks in lime mortar (the lime was made by burning sea shells from the local shore or lime stone quarried from Tutipet)
Partial street frontage ,compound wall with curved panels, grand pieced gate ,parapet with pot balusters Large courtyard with circular arched inner fa├žade with ornate balcony . 

Wooden railing over wrought iron baluster Large hall,columns carring heavy wooden beams that support the roof. Semi circular arched gate with engaged columns Stucco design
Franco–Tamil houses Then, a corridor leads to the interior or central courtyard, open to the sky, called mutram, lined up by an inner veranda with country (canal) tiles of baked earth over wooden columns. Beyond, are the more private spaces like sami arai (pooja room), storeroom or bedroom and kitchen which opens in to a rear courtyard that encloses a well, toilet and bathroom. It is built on rubble foundations, with walls of flat bricks and Madras terrace roofing. It is characterized by a street veranda, called talvaram with Mangalore tiles over wooden posts and a raised platform with wooden columns and masonry benches for visitors, called tinnai.